APA Image Citation

We know that proper citation is essential when using information from references such as books, periodicals, visual media, and online sources. However, many of us forget to cite images we use in our manuscripts. Images include photographs, paintings, drawings, charts, diagrams and graphs. Just like other information we borrowed from a source, images are also subject to proper citation.

Using the American Psychological Association (APA) citation system, images are cited in the caption and in the reference list.  In this article, we will comprehensively discuss the guides in writing APA image citation with the specific formats and examples.

Citing the Author

One Author

Caption   Reference list
A. A. Last name 

K. M. Stewart

 

 

Last name, A. A. 

Stewart, K. M.

 

*Reverse the name of the author

 

Multiple Authors 

Two to Seven Authors
Caption   Reference list
A. A. Last name and B. B. Last name 

R. Wood and N. R. Perry

 

Last name, A. A., & Last name, B. B. 

Wood, R., & Perry, N. R.

 

*The names of the author should be listed in the same order as it is written in the source. Use ampersand (&) instead of “and.”

 

More than Seven Authors
Caption   Reference list
A. A. Last name, B. B. Last name, C. C. Last name, D. D. Last name, E.E. Last name, F. F. Last name and G. G. Last nameJ. Long, Q. L. Morales, G. Russel, J. R. Jenkins, C. K. Butler, N. Foster and F. Fisher

 

Last name, A. A., Last name, B. B., Last name, C. C., Last name, D. D., Last name, E. E., Last name, F. F., . . . Last name, G. G. 

Long, J., Morales Q. L., Russel G., Jenkins J. R., Butler C. K., Foster N., . . . Fisher F.

 

*Up to seven authors can be included in the reference list. After the name of the sixth author, write three ellipsis points followed by the last author’s name.

 

Basic Elements

Caption

Captions are written below the images with some information about the reference, copyright details and permission of use.

  • Include only the reference information available from the source. Some sources may not have copyright information.
  • Assign figure numbers to images.
  • Italicize the figure numbers, and title of books and periodicals.
  • If there is no title, provide a short description of the image instead.
  • The name of the author is written with the initials first followed by the last name.
  • Include copyright information (copyright year and copyright holder) and permission of use.
  • Write the full name of the copyright holder.

 

Reference List

  • Include only the reference information available from the source.
  • Italicize the title or description of the image, as well as the title of books and periodicals.
  • Write n. d. if the date of publication is not available.
  • If there is no title, provide a short description of the image instead.
  • For images with no author, use the title of the image in lieu of the author.
  • Include the image format (e. g. Photograph, Chart, Map, Painting).
  • List the URL for images found on the web.

 

Book

Caption

Basic Format: Figure number. Description or title of image. From TItle of Book (p. xxx), by Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted] with permission.

Example: Figure 1. Depression. From Psychiatric Health (p. 2), by L. M. Anderson, 1992, New York, NY: Scott. Copyright [1992] by Jill Crowne. Reprinted with permission.

 

Reference List

Basic Format: Artist or Author.  (Year of image creation). Description or title of image [Image format]. In Author or Editor, Title of Book (pages). Location: Publisher, Year of book publication.

Example: Smith, J L. (2001). Stressed adult [Photograph]. In K. R. Williams, Stress and Depression (p. 10). New York, NY: Scott, 2004.

Note: The name of the author or editor after the word “In” is written with the initials first followed by the last name.

 

Periodical

Caption

Basic Format: Figure number. Description or title of image. From “Title of Article,” by Author, year, TItle of Periodical, Volume, pages. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted] with permission.

Example: Figure 1. Depression. From “Causes of Depression,” by L. M. Anderson, 1992, Journal of Psychiatric Health, Vol. 1, p. 2. Copyright [1992] by Jill Crowne. Reprinted with permission.

 

Reference List

Basic Format: Artist or Author.  (Year of image creation). Description or title of image [Image format]. In Author or Editor, Article Title. Title of Periodical, Volume number (Issue number, if available), pages.

Example: Smith, J L. (2001). Stressed adult [Photograph]. In K. R. Williams, Dealing with Stress. Psychiatric Health Magazine, Vol. 1(4), p. 2.

 

Internet/Online

Caption

Basic Format: Figure number. Description or title of image. From “Title of Article,” by Author, year, http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted] with permission.

Example: Figure 1. Depression. From “Causes of Depression,” by L. M. Anderson, 1992, http://www.psychiatrichealth.com/. Copyright [1992] by Jill Crowne. Reprinted with permission.

 

Reference List

Basic Format: Artist or Author. (Year of image creation).  Description or title of image [Image format]. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Example: Smith, J L. (2001). Stressed adult [Photograph].Retrieved from http://www.stressanddepression.com